能源使用木材生物质:仓储,运输,加工和燃烧

三月 2015俄罗斯124 PetrGU
PetrGU

The manual on the basis of summarizing domestic and foreign experience provides a systematic description of the technology of the energy use of wood biomass. In sufficient detail the principle of operation and characteristics of the machines and equipment that are applied to the workpiece bioenergosyrya, transportation and combustion of solid biofuels. Designed for high school students enrolled in the areas of training, "Forestry business", "Technological machines and equipment" and "Technology logging and wood processing industries." The manual was prepared with the support of the international research project "New cross-border solutions in the field of intensification of forest management and to increase the use of wood fuel in the energy sector," the program of cross-border cooperation in the framework of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument "Karelia» (Karelia ENPI CBC) and the Strategic Development Program of Petrozavodsk State University.

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INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Wood harvesting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1. Types and characteristics bioenergosyrya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1. Classification of woody biomass and volume of its formation. . . . . . . . . . 9 1.1.2. Accounting methods woody biomass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2. Technological chains bioenergosyrya workpiece. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.2.1. Technology of production of fuel wood chips with clear- CTL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.2.2. Technology of production of wood chips in the procurement Hungry wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.2.3. Technology of production of wood chips from Pniewy-burl wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.2.4. Technological chain of production of wood chips at woody biomass concentration at the upper landing (Loading dock). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.3. Machinery for harvesting and processing woody biomass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1.3.1. Gasoline-powered saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1.3.2. Brush cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1.3.3. Harvester and harvester heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.3.4. Mobile (mobile) chippers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 1.3.5. Harvesting Pnev-root wood (tree stump). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.4. Concentration, packaging and transportation logging residues. Machines and mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 1.4.1. Machinery to increase the concentration of logging residues. . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.2. Transportation forestry machinery based forwarder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1.4.3. Paketirovschiki-packers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 1.5. Trains for transporting wood chips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2. the production and storage of solid fuel. . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.1. Manufacture of wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.1.1. Raw Materials. Types, basic parameters, resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.1.2. Products. Form humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.1.3. Standards. Qualitative characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.1.4. Technological operations on firewood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.1.5. Equipment for firewood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2.1.6. Transporting firewood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 2.1.7. Storage and piling firewood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4 2.2. Technology of production of chips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.2.1. Raw materials for the production of wood chips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 2.2.2. Products. Standards. Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 2.2.3. Manufacturing operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 2.2.4. Equipment for the production of wood chips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2.3. Technology of production of fuel pellets (pellets). . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.3.1. Raw material for the production of fuel pellets (pellets). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.3.2. Products. Standards. Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.3.3. Manufacturing operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.3.4. The equipment used for the production of pellets (pellets). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.3.5. Transport and storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.4. Technology of production of briquettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 2.4.1. Raw material for the production of fuel pellets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 2.4.2. Products. Standards. Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 2.4.3. Manufacturing operations and equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3. TECHNOLOGY combustion of solid wood fuels. . 81 3.1. Features of woody biomass as a fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.1.1. Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.1.2. Ash content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.1.3. Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.1.4. The elemental composition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.1.5. The heat of combustion of woody biomass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.1.6. Zharoproizvoditelnost fuelwood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.2. The theory of combustion of wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.2.1. Stage combustion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.2.2. Stages of burning wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.2.3. Heat loss during combustion and efficiency. . . . . . 95 3.2.4. Factors which characterize the efficiency of the combustion process. . . . . . . . . 95 3.3. Technology energy use of wood fuel. . . 96 3.3.1. Direct combustion of wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 3.3.2. Co-generation of heat and electricity. . . . . . . 98 3.3.3. Heat generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3.4. Wood combustion and the main types firing installations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 3.5. Storage technology, transportation and burning wood chips. . . . . . . . 108 3.5.1. Boiler room equipment for burning wood chips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 3.5.2. Equipment for storage and fuel supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 3.5.2.1. Fuel storage equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 3.5.2.2. Equipment for fuel supply with automatic warehouse. . . . . 113 REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

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